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."Types and variations of indian gravies" is not in the form of a question; but I am going to assume that the questioner wishes to ask what are the constituents of Indian sauces? The less common English word 'gravy' most often refers to a meat sauce. In the United States "gravy" nearly always refers to a sauce that has a very high animal fat content from roasted meat juices that has been thickened with some sort of starch - generally wheat flour. I have never heard of a vegetable gravy. No matter how I view this question the answer is broad enough to fill a lengthy book. What complicate the matter is that India is huge - a culinary continent unto itself. The various regions of India each have their own wonderful culinary creations. The variations are wide.
2.Certain generalities can be stated. The liquid content consists of water; spices of course; some amount of ghee, mustard oil, or other oil will always be present; sometimes vinegar is added, very often yogurt is used. Thickening may be by slow cooking reduction or via the addition of cashews or peanuts (groundnuts), ground white poppy seeds, etc. Starches such as arrowroot can be used. Sambar is a special case of a mildly seasoned water and lentil based "gravy" served as a side dish accompanying spicier dishes.