00 flour, semolina flour


A specially grown hard wheat that is also high in protein and gluten. Often used to make pasta products. It is unknown where this wheat originated, though it is though to have originated in Abyssinia or southern parts of the Mediterranean basin. Records show there was cultivation in Byzantine Egypt.

With the rise of Islam, the crop spread rapidly throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain. In some parts of the Mediterranean, durum was the only wheat grown. It was also grown by Muslims during their habitation of medieval Southern Italy, and was amongst the agricultural products that were exported from the Muslim world to the West.


Other names: Durhum Wheat, Macaroni Wheat
Translations: Cietie kvieši, Kietieji kviečiai, Pentru grâul dur, Durum pšenice, Lúa mì Lúa mì cứng, Pszenicy durum, Harde tarwe, Durum गेहूं, Trigo duro, Твердой пшеницы, Σκληρό σιτάρι, القمح القاسي, Durum 밀, Pšenice tvrdá, Дурум пшенице, 硬粒小麦, El blat dur, Trda pšenica, Tvrdá pšenica, Grano Duro, חיטה דורום, Durumvete, Gandum durum, デュラム小麦, Blé dur, Durum, Hård hvede, Durumhvete, El trigo duro, Твердої пшениці, Durumvehnä, Твърдата пшеница

Physical Description

The grains of durum wheat are slightly larger than those of other wheat species, and the most frequently grown variant has a distinct amber color.

Colors: Unground kernels of durum wheat have an amber color, and coarsely ground, its flour retains a yellowish or cream tint.

Tasting Notes

Mouthfeel: Chewy
Substitutes: Hard red wheat

Selecting and Buying

Buying: It's most often available pre-processed, either ground or in the form of dried pasta. It's so frequently used for pasta that it's often called "macaroni wheat."
Procuring: It's suitable for cultivation in areas with relatively little rainfall or water for irrigation.

Preparation and Use

It can be ground in varying degrees of coarseness for use as cereal or flour.

Conserving and Storing

It has been known to remain fertile after as much as eighty years of storage in silos.


History: Durum wheat is known to have been grown in Egypt during the Byzantine period of its history, but its use was not wide-spread until much later. Its popularity eventually grew, due to its ability to be grown in areas unsuitable for other forms of wheat, and the fact that it remains usable even after decades of storage.

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