To prepare muffins, in a large bowl, using a wooden spoon or an electric mixer set on medium speed, beat together butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition. Beat in vanilla.
In a medium bowl, stir flour mixture into egg mixture. Fold in lemon zest. Gradually stir in buttermilk until dry ingredients are just moistened. Do not overmix.
Spoon batter into prepared pan, filling 2/3 full. Spoon a heaping tablespoon of blueberries into center of each muffin.
Bake in preheated oven until lightly golden, 18 to 20 minutes. Transfer muffin pan to a wire rack to cool slightly. Remove muffins from pan and servewarm.